Microsoft Windows 10 Professional 64 Bit with MS Office 2021 Version 22H2 Pre-Activated

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Microsoft Windows 10 Professional 64 Bit with MS Office 2021 Version 21H2 Pre-Activated is available in Pakistan. Windows 10 is a series of operating systems developed by Microsoft and released as part of its Windows NT family of operating systems. It is the successor to Windows 8.1, released nearly two years earlier, and was released to manufacturing on July 15, 2015, and broadly released for the general public on July 29, 2015. Windows 10 was made available for download via MSDN and Technet, and as a free upgrade for retail copies of Windows 8 via the Windows Store. Windows 10 receives new builds on an ongoing basis, which are available at no additional cost to users, in addition to additional test builds of Windows 10, which are available to Windows Insiders. Devices in enterprise environments can receive these updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones that only receive critical updates, such as security patches, over their ten-year lifespan of extended support.

Windows 10 received mostly positive reviews upon its original release. Critics praised Microsoft’s decision to provide a desktop-oriented interface in line with previous versions of Windows, contrasting the tablet-oriented approach of Windows 8, although Windows 10’s touch-oriented user interface mode was criticized for containing regressions upon the touch-oriented interface of its predecessor. Critics also praised the improvements to Windows 10’s bundled software over Windows 8.1, Xbox Live integration, as well as the functionality and capabilities of the Cortana personal assistant and the replacement of Internet Explorer with Microsoft Edge. However, media outlets have been critical of the changes to operating system behaviors, including mandatory update installation, privacy concerns over data collection performed by the OS for Microsoft and its partners, and adware-esque tactics used to promote the operating system on its release.[21]

Microsoft initially aimed to have Windows 10 installed on over a billion devices within three years of its release;[19] that goal was ultimately reached almost five years later on March 16, 2020.[22] By January 2018, Windows 10 surpassed Windows 7 as the most popular version of Windows worldwide;[23] and by May 2020, Windows 10 surpassed Windows 7 as the most popular version of Windows in China.[24] As of November 2020, it is estimated that 77% of Windows PCs are running Windows 10,[23] with that figure being 59% of all PCs (including Mac/Linux) and 28% of all devices (including mobile, tablet and console).

Development

At the Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference in 2011, Andrew Lees, the chief of Microsoft’s mobile technologies, said that the company intended to have a single software ecosystem for PCs, phones, tablets, and other devices: “We won’t have an ecosystem for PCs, and one for phones, and one for tablets‍—‌they’ll all come together.”[27][28]

In December 2013, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was working on an update to Windows 8 codenamed “Threshold”, after a planet in its Halo franchise.[29] Similarly to “Blue” (which became Windows 8.1),[30] Foley described Threshold, not as a single operating system, but as a “wave of operating systems” across multiple Microsoft platforms and services, quoting Microsoft sources, scheduled for the second quarter of 2015. She also stated that one of the goals for Threshold was to create a unified application platform and development toolkit for Windows, Windows Phone and Xbox One (which all use a similar Windows NT kernel, that at release was Windows 10’s only kernel; it already claimed a hybrid kernel model, before addition of the Linux kernel in a subsequent Windows 10 update, which is otherwise a monolithic kernel).[29][31]

At the Build Conference in April 2014, Microsoft’s Terry Myerson unveiled an updated version of Windows 8.1 (build 9697) that added the ability to run Windows Store apps inside desktop windows and a more traditional Start menu in place of the Start screen seen in Windows 8. The new Start menu takes after Windows 7‘s design by using only a portion of the screen and including a Windows 7-style application listing in the first column. The second column displays Windows 8-style app tiles. Myerson said that these changes would occur in a future update, but did not elaborate.[32][33] Microsoft also unveiled the concept of a “universal Windows app”, allowing Windows Store apps created for Windows 8.1 to be ported to Windows Phone 8.1 and Xbox One while sharing a common codebase, with an interface designed for different device form factors, and allowing user data and licenses for an app to be shared between multiple platforms. Windows Phone 8.1 would share nearly 90% of the common Windows Runtime APIs with Windows 8.1 on PCs.[32][34][35][36]

Screenshots of a Windows build purported to be Threshold were leaked in July 2014, showing the previously presented Start menu and windowed Windows Store apps,[37] followed by a further screenshot of a build identifying itself as “Windows Technical Preview” , numbered 9834, in September 2014, showing a new virtual desktop system, a notification center, and a new File Explorer icon.[38]

Announcement

On September 30, 2014, Microsoft officially announced that Threshold would be unveiled during a media event as Windows 10, Myerson said that Windows 10 would be Microsoft’s “most comprehensive platform ever”, providing a single, unified platform for desktop and laptop computers, tablets, smartphones, and all-in-one devices.[39][40][41] He emphasized that Windows 10 would take steps towards restoring user interface mechanics from Windows 7 to improve the experience for users on non-touch devices, noting criticism of Windows 8’s touch-oriented interface by keyboard and mouse users.[42][43] Despite these concessions, Myerson noted that the touch-optimized interface would evolve as well on 10.[44]

In regards to Microsoft naming the new operating system Windows 10 instead of Windows 9, Terry Myerson said that “based on the product that’s coming, and just how different our approach will be overall, it wouldn’t be right to call it Windows 9.”[45] He also joked that they could not call it “Windows One” (alluding to several recent Microsoft products with a similar brand, such as OneDriveOneNote, and Xbox One) because Windows 1.0 already existed.[46] At a San Francisco conference in October 2014, Tony Prophet, Microsoft’s Vice President of Windows Marketing, said that Windows 9 “came and went”, and that Windows 10 would not be “an incremental step from Windows 8.1,” but “a material step. We’re trying to create one platform, one eco-system that unites as many of the devices [sic] from the small embedded Internet of Things, through tablets, through phones, through PCs and, ultimately, into the Xbox.”[47]

Further details surrounding Windows 10’s consumer-oriented features were presented during another media event held on January 21, 2015, entitled “Windows 10: The Next Chapter”. The keynote featured the unveiling of Cortana integration within the operating system, new Xbox-oriented features, Windows 10 Mobile, an updated Office Mobile suite, Surface Hub‍—‌a large-screened Windows 10 device for enterprise collaboration based upon Perceptive Pixel technology,[48] along with HoloLensaugmented reality eyewear and an associated platform for building apps that can render holograms through HoloLens.[49]

Additional developer-oriented details surrounding the “Universal Windows Platform” concept were revealed and discussed during Microsoft’s Build developers’ conference. Among them were the unveiling of “Islandwood”, which provides a middleware toolchain for compiling Objective-C-based software (particularly iOS) to run as universal apps on Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile. A port of Candy Crush Saga made using the toolkit, which shared much of its code with the iOS version, was demonstrated, alongside the announcement that the King-developed game would be bundled with Windows 10 at launch.[50][51][52][53]

Release

On June 1, 2015, Microsoft announced that Windows 10 would be released on July 29, that year.[18] On July 20, 2015 Microsoft began “Upgrade Your World”, an advertising campaign centering on Windows 10, with the premiere of television commercials in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The commercials focused on the tagline “A more human way to do”, emphasizing new features and technologies supported by Windows 10 that sought to provide a more “personal” experience to users.[54][55] The campaign culminated with launch events in thirteen cities on July 29, 2015, which celebrated “the unprecedented role our biggest fans played in the development of Windows 10”.[56]

Features

Windows 10 makes its user experience and functionality more consistent between different classes of device, and addresses most of the shortcomings in the user interface that were introduced in Windows 8.[42][43][57] Windows 10 Mobile, the successor to Windows Phone 8.1, shared some user interface elements and apps with its PC counterpart.[58]

Windows 10 supports universal apps, an expansion of the Metro-style first introduced in Windows 8. Universal apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code‍—‌including PCstabletssmartphonesembedded systemsXbox OneSurface Hub and Mixed Reality. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices‍—‌particularly on 2-in-1 PCs, both interfaces include an updated Start menu which incorporates elements of Windows 7‘s traditional Start menu with the tiles of Windows 8. Windows 10 also introduced the Microsoft Edge web browser, a virtual desktop system, a window and desktop management feature called Task View, support for fingerprint and face recognition login, new security features for enterprise environments, and DirectX 12.

The Windows Runtime app ecosystem was revised into the Universal Windows Platform (UWP).[34][59][60] These universal apps are made to run across multiple platforms and device classes, including smartphones, tablets, Xbox One consoles, and other devices compatible with Windows 10. Windows apps share code across platforms, have responsive designs that adapt to the needs of the device and available inputs, can synchronize data between Windows 10 devices (including notifications, credentials, and allowing cross-platform multiplayer for games), and are distributed through Microsoft Store (rebranded from Windows Store since September 2017).[61] Developers can allow “cross-buys”, where purchased licenses for an app apply to all of the user’s compatible devices, rather than only the one they purchased on (e.g., a user purchasing an app on PC is also entitled to use the smartphone version at no extra cost).[35][62][63]

On Windows 10, Microsoft Store serves as a unified storefront for apps, video content, and eBooks.[64] Windows 10 also allows web apps and desktop software (using either Win32 or .NET Framework) to be packaged for distribution on Microsoft Store. Desktop software distributed through Windows Store is packaged using the App-V system to allow sandboxing.[65][66]

User interface and desktop

The “Task View” display is a new feature to Windows 10, allowing the use of multiple workspaces.

A new iteration of the Start menu is used on the Windows 10 desktop, with a list of places and other options on the left side, and tiles representing applications on the right. The menu can be resized, and expanded into a full-screen display, which is the default option in Tablet mode.[42][57][67] A new virtual desktop system was added. A feature known as Task View displays all open windows and allows users to switch between them, or switch between multiple workspaces.[42][57] Universal apps, which previously could be used only in full screen mode, can now be used in self-contained windows similarly to other programs.[42][57] Program windows can now be snapped to quadrants of the screen by dragging them to the corner. When a window is snapped to one side of the screen, Task View appears and the user is prompted to choose a second window to fill the unused side of the screen (called “Snap Assist”).[57] Windows’ system icons were also changed.[67]

Charms have been removed; their functionality in universal apps is accessed from an App commands menu on their title bar.[42][57] In its place is Action Center, which displays notifications and settings toggles. It is accessed by clicking an icon in the notification area, or dragging from the right of the screen. Notifications can be synced between multiple devices.[58][67] The Settings app (formerly PC Settings) was refreshed and now includes more options that were previously exclusive to the desktop Control Panel.[68][69]

Windows 10 is designed to adapt its user interface based on the type of device being used and available input methods. It offers two separate user interface modes: a user interface optimized for mouse and keyboard, and a “Tablet mode” designed for touchscreens. Users can toggle between these two modes at any time, and Windows can prompt or automatically switch when certain events occur, such as disabling Tablet mode on a tablet if a keyboard or mouse is plugged in, or when a 2-in-1 PC is switched to its laptop state. In Tablet mode, programs default to a maximized view, and the taskbar contains a back button and hides buttons for opened or pinned programs by default; Task View is used instead to switch between programs. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally.[43][70][71][72]

System security

Windows Hello unlock prompt on a Surface Pro 4 while using Enpass (a password manager)

Windows 10 incorporates multi-factor authentication technology based upon standards developed by the FIDO Alliance.[73] The operating system includes improved support for biometric authentication through the Windows Hello platform. Devices with supported cameras (requiring infrared illumination, such as Intel RealSense) allow users to log in with iris or face recognition, similarly to Kinect. Devices with supported readers allow users to log in through fingerprint recognition. Support was also added for palm-vein scanning through a partnership with Fujitsu in February 2018.[74] Credentials are stored locally and protected using asymmetric encryption.[75]

In addition to biometric authentication, Windows Hello supports authentication with a PIN. By default, Windows requires a PIN to consist of four digits, but can be configured to permit more complex PINs. However, a PIN is not a simpler password. While passwords are transmitted to domain controllers, PINs are not. They are tied to one device, and if compromised, only one device is affected. Backed by a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip, Windows uses PINs to create strong asymmetric key pairs. As such, the authentication token transmitted to the server is harder to crack. In addition, whereas weak passwords may be broken via rainbow tables, TPM causes the much-simpler Windows PINs to be resilient to brute-force attacks.[76]

When Windows 10 was first introduced, multi-factor authentication was provided by two components: Windows Hello and Passport (not to be confused with the Passport platform of 1998). Later, Passport was merged into Windows Hello.[77][75]

The enterprise edition of Windows 10 offers additional security features; administrators can set up policies for the automatic encryption of sensitive data, selectively block applications from accessing encrypted data, and enable Device Guard‍—‌a system which allows administrators to enforce a high-security environment by blocking the execution of software that is not digitally signed by a trusted vendor or Microsoft. Device Guard is designed to protect against zero-day exploits, and runs inside a hypervisor so that its operation remains separated from the operating system itself.[73][78]

Command line

Windows Console windows (for both PowerShell and the legacy Command Prompt) can now be resized without any restrictions, can be made to cover the full screen by pressing Alt+↵ Enter, and can use standard keyboard shortcuts, such as those for cut, copy, and paste. Other features such as word wrap and transparency were also added. These functions can be disabled to revert to the legacy console if needed.[79]

Bash running on Windows 10

The Anniversary Update added Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL), which allows the installation of a user space environment from a supported Linux distribution that runs natively on Windows. The subsystem translates Linux system calls to those of the Windows NT kernel (only claims full system call compatibility as of WSL 2, included in a later Windows update). The environment can execute the Bash shell and 64-bit command-line programs (WSL 2 also supports 32-bit Linux programs and graphics, assuming supporting software installed,[80] and GPUs support for other uses[81]). Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa. Linux distributions for Windows Subsystem for Linux are obtained through Microsoft Store. The feature initially supported an Ubuntu-based environment; Microsoft announced in May 2017 that it would add Fedora and OpenSUSE environment options as well.[82][83][84][85][86][87][88]

Storage requirements

To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1.5 GB for 32-bit systems and 2.6 GB for 64-bit systems. The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs, which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance. Furthermore, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB. These functions replace the WIMBoot mode introduced on Windows 8.1 Update, which allowed OEMs to configure low-capacity devices with flash-based storage to use Windows system files out of the compressed WIM image typically used for installation and recovery.[89][90][91] Windows 10 also includes a function in its Settings app that allows users to view a breakdown of how their device’s storage capacity is being used by different types of files, and determine whether certain types of files are saved to internal storage or an SD card by default.[92]

Online services and functionality

Windows 10 introduces Microsoft Edge, a new default web browser. It initially featured a new standards-compliant rendering engine derived from Trident, and also includes annotation tools and integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows 10.[93][94][95] Internet Explorer 11 is maintained on Windows 10 for compatibility purposes, but is deprecated in favor of Edge and will no longer be actively developed.[96][97] In January 2020, the initial version of Edge was succeeded by a new iteration derived from the Chromium project and the Blink layout engine and the old Edge based on EdgeHTML is now called ‘Microsoft Edge Legacy’.[98] The legacy version of Edge is currently being replaced by the new Chromium-based Edge via Windows Update. It can also be downloaded manually. In both the cases, it will replace the old Edge. Every Windows 10 version from 20H2, which was released on October 20, 2020, will come with the new version of the browser preinstalled.[99] The Windows 10 October 2020 update added a price comparison tool to the Edge browser.[100]

Windows 10 incorporates a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed to a single button.[101][102] Previous versions featured Microsoft’s intelligent personal assistant Cortana, which was first introduced with Windows Phone 8.1 in 2014, and supports both text and voice input. Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing, setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting reminders or sending emails.[103][104][67] Since the November 2019 update, Microsoft has begun to downplay Cortana as part of a repositioning of the product towards enterprise use, with the May 2020 update removing its Windows shell integration and consumer-oriented features.[105][106][107][108]

Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services. Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions. The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child’s computer usage. Unlike previous versions of Windows, child accounts in a family must be associated with a Microsoft account‍—‌which allows these settings to apply across all Windows 10 devices that a particular child is using.[109][110]

Windows 10 also offers the Wi-Fi Sense feature originating from Windows Phone 8.1; users can optionally have their device automatically connect to suggested open hotspots, and share their home network’s password with contacts (either via SkypePeople, or Facebook) so they may automatically connect to the network on a Windows 10 device without needing to manually enter its password. Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers and sent to the devices of the selected contacts. Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network. Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on 802.1X-encrypted networks. Adding “_optout” at the end of the SSID will also block the corresponding network from being used for this feature.[111]

Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November 2015 update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone. These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile.[112][113]

Multimedia and gaming

Windows 10 provides heavier integration with the Xbox ecosystem. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox Console Companion (formerly the Xbox app), which allows users to browse their game library (including both PC and Xbox console games), and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut, allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere.[114][115] Windows 10 also allows users to control and play games from an Xbox One console over a local network.[116] The Xbox Live SDK allows application developers to incorporate Xbox Live functionality into their apps, and future wireless Xbox One accessories, such as controllers, are supported on Windows with an adapter.[117] Microsoft also intends to allow cross-buys and save synchronization between Xbox One and Windows 10 versions of games; Microsoft Studios games such as ReCore and Quantum Break are intended as being exclusive to Windows 10 and Xbox One.[118]

Candy Crush Saga and Microsoft Solitaire Collection are also automatically installed upon installation of Windows 10.[119][120]

Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced game bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the storage device.[121]

Windows 10 adds FLAC and HEVC codecs and support for the Matroska media container, allowing these formats to be opened in Windows Media Player and other applications.[122][123][124]

DirectX 12

Windows 10 includes DirectX 12, alongside WDDM 2.0.[125][126] Unveiled March 2014 at GDC, DirectX 12 aims to provide “console-level efficiency” with “closer to the metal” access to hardware resources, and reduced CPU and graphics driver overhead.[127][128] Most of the performance improvements are achieved through low-level programming, which allow developers to use resources more efficiently and reduce single-threaded CPU bottlenecking caused by abstraction through higher level APIs.[129][130] DirectX 12 will also feature support for vendor agnostic multi-GPU setups.[131] WDDM 2.0 introduces a new virtual memory management and allocation system to reduce workload on the kernel-mode driver.[125][132]

Fonts

Windows 10 adds three new default typefaces to Windows 8, but removes dozens of others. The removed typefaces are available in supplemental packs and may be added manually over a non-metered internet connection.

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